Google services on Android or iPhones can store your location data, even when you try to prevent it through your device settings.
Google Maps can make a timeline of your movements, for example. It works so well that last year a warrant was served by police in North Carolina to Google to find devices near a murder scene. You can turn off your location history so the places you go will not be stored.
If you are logged into Google, go to https://www.google.com/maps/timeline?pb to see your timeline or whether it is even on. You can turn the tracking of your history on or off here: https://myaccount.google.com/activitycontrols/location?hl=en&gl=US
This may not keep Google from tracking your movements through nearby towers but it is something more you can do to make it a little more difficult for them.